Turkey

The party system in Turkey during the Third Republic has gone from being the dominant party and a strong government (1983-1991) to the fragmentation of the electorate and a weak coalition government (1991-2002). Since 2002, the country returned to the phase of the domination of one political force – the moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party. However, the events of 2008 have changed the situation. Before the Turkish Republic, once again loomed the specter of political instability. Over half a century of the existence of multi-party democracy in Turkey, its party system in many respects is the key to a strange mixture of successes and failures of this country. On the one hand, Turkey has retained its basic democratic structure, on the other – this structure was repeatedly destroyed. Many politicians rightly argue that “the form of the modern party system is partly the result of past interventions army in politics and perhaps the expectation of future.” On the one hand, Turkey was able to destroy some elements of statist-bureaucratic dominant political culture, on the other – the state still has more power over politicians and decision-making process than in any Western democracy. It urges political parties to prioritize relations with the state, weakening their relationship with the electorate. On the other hand, Turkey has made some progress in strengthening civil society, on the other it remains relatively weak and has evolved to a much lesser extent than expected. Political parties have not made a significant contribution to strengthening civil society, because it is not anticipated to benefit from it, and their own structures remain closed to new personalities and ideas.

Turkey is one of the first countries of the Muslim world, who opened towards the modern West and tried to respond to the challenges of the Western world and civilization. Also, Turkey is well known as a very colorful oriental country with it is hospitable people, which greatly attract many tourists from all over the world. Especially, it takes attention because of the beaches and luxury hotels, which are located on the west- coast of the Mediterranean Sea. As for me, I visited Turkey three times and I was very pleased. Every time I was in different cities, such as Kemer, Antalya, Belek and the last time I visited Izmir in the summer 2014. The trip was very interesting and I remembered it for a long time because Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey, after Ankara and Istanbul. Moreover, Izmir own way beautiful and rich city and has a lot of attractions. However, my main concern is to visit Istanbul, truly amazing city which is also considered as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. There is one very beautifully saying quote of Napoleon: “if it were possible to choose a city that would be the capital of the world – it would definitely Istanbul”.

In conclusion, I think the field trip to Istanbul would help me in a way of my prospects of development. Especially, with it constituting the country’s economic, cultural, and historical heart. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, with it is commercial and historical center lying on the European side. What could be better ? It is so rare when one city keeps such a great story, handed down from generation to generation. For example , Istanbul served as an imperial capital for the Roman , the Byzantine  , the Latin , and the Ottoman empires. Furthermore, last year Istanbul was named a European Capital of Culture, which contains a rich, colorful and ancient culture.

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PERCEPTION OF DEVELOPMENT

Through the time my perception of development did not changed. The process in which someone or something, grows or changes and becomes more advanced. Development is all about – growth. However, it is not just positive process, it might cause negative side and problems. My research about colonialism helped me to understand different kind of aspects of development such as First, Second and Third World countries. Whereas some of those countries, more or less economic developed. One of the main problems which development can lead to is economic disorder such as high business taxes, fast growing population and etc. These have traditionally been divided into failures of ‘development’ and failures in the management of our human environment. On the development side, in terms of absolute numbers there are more hungry people in the world than ever before, and their numbers are increasing. So are the numbers who cannot read or write, the numbers without safe water or safe and sound homes, and the numbers short of wood fuel with which to cook and warm themselves. The gap between rich and poor nations is widening – not shrinking – and there is little prospect, given present trends and institutional arrangements, that this process will be reversed.

Group presentation task

We have been asked to do a power point group presentation work as a part of assignments in order to find out and present to audience the main features and key concepts of presentation task. Our main topic is ‘’The End of the Third World’’ because of the fact that topic is vast and multifaceted we decided to divide it into the five main subheadings such as: “definition and etymology of the ‘Third World’ “, “history of first and second world”, “third worldism, development and foreign aid”, “problems with the use of the ‘Third World”, “alternatives to the ‘Third World’ “. Also, our group communication is based on discussions on google dox and arranging meetings in the library every weekend.  Moreover, on our library-meetings we are trying to clarifies and discuss with each other about what new have been done and found about our presentation topic. As for me, I chose “History of first and second world”. Furthermore , I have been done some research and found relevant information on Guy Arnold “End of the third World” book , where author precisely explains about history of the first and second world. However, still I am doing more research.

Field Trip to the City of London

It is not a secret that London is so wealthy in it’s history. Each part of London has a memorable and extraordinary story. One of these parts is City of London. City of London is one of the most famous, oldest and influential district in London.  It existed for more than 800 years and continues to be an important financial center in the world. The field trip to the City of London helped us understand and think about development in so many ways such as globalization, industrialization, colonization, world trade, financial institutions. All of these buildings, for instance Lloyds Bank, Bank of England, Stock Exchange and Guildhall have a major influence on the international political economy and development, it made England a global power. Also, they have an impact on development not only in UK but in the whole world by distributing the money. Furthermore it was crucial to support industrialization, globalization and colonization. The City of London is the center of banking and insurance in the world.  The City of London is a statement of financial and political influence.

WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ?

We are living in modern day society and we can see development in our lives more often than anything else, but what does exactly mean “development”? Why we used to say that some countries are rich and some are poor or some countries more or less developed? It is difficult to find a accurate definition of “what is development?” But one thing we know without doubt, that is development is about growth. On the period of the post war re-development some countries such as United Kingdom, France and Spain colonized other countries for the exploitation of those countries resources (oil ,gold ,slaves, cotton …). Many changes occur during colonization for example increases in GDP per capita but still such countries like developing countries or LDC (less developed countries)have widespread poverty, low income per capita, low standard of living. According to United Nations documents, claimed that “human development “measured by life expectancy, adult literacy, people’s average income, which is a necessary condition of their freedom of choice. All of these things includes HDI (Health, Education, Income) and it is true that economic growth, by increasing nation’s wealth helps for reducing poverty and solving other social problems.

HOW SHOULD DEVELOPMENT BE MEASURED ?

Development can be measured in so many different aspects such as political, social and cultural changes. All these changes have strong impact on nowadays society. As an example of civil liberties, freedom of press, beliefs ,values and associations, people have more freedom than past few decades, they are free to say their own opinions, choose their own religion or faith and people became more open-minded with the view upon social variety. Some changes occur between genders too. For instance men and women became more equal but still there are some gender gaps between them and the fight for gender equality has been started recently. Through these social changes development can be measured because it is obvious that society changed in a positive way. Democracy is a major influential factor which leads to those changes in the world. Democratic world has to know what people want and what they are expecting from it. From this knowledge changes appear. Moreover, people are allowed to talk and share their thoughts and it has been created the rise of individualism, because people were raised with the impression that they are special, they are entitled to an opinion and that their voice matters.